Demographics

When discussing China, it is impossible to avoid mentioning the demographics of the population.

In 2012, China was considered the most populous country on the planet with 1.35 billion people. It is impossible to compare this to France with 66 million small and even the whole European Union, which is not even a total of 506 million. Thus, a territory twice as large as the EU, China has three times more people. Some argue, however, since the one child policy instituted by Mao these numbers may change in the future.

Poverty in decline

Generally, China has done well to reduce poverty in recent decades. After Mao, leaders have taken care of the country well and China continues to grow.
While 43% of the world’s population was below the poverty line in 1981. In China, this percentage amounted to more than 13% of that statistic in 2010. Compared to India, which still hosts 30% of people below the poverty line.
In China, people try to follow the fast pace of the economy. City dwellers are more numerous, and experience success. Rural areas are the most affected by poverty, but the number is declining annually.
Yet, although poverty affects 150 million people it is a major challenge of such a huge population. In relation to food and energy China has resources that its population is only 700 million. The one-child policy may have been created around this time.

The one-child policy

The Chinese government considers that in a country where resources are limited per person, a large population is an obstacle to develop the standard of living and economy. With a large population, food, employment, education and other sectors would be difficult to sustain and become destabilizing factor. Like any system, the one-child policy implemented in China has its benefits and adverse effects.
With Deng Xiaoping and his successors, it encourages late marriage with remote and few births. At the very outset, the policy of the one child did not exist, only a small growth population was favored. However, according to the forecasts made in 1978, China would have 1.5 billion in 2000. The one-child policy was launched a year later to not exceed 1.2 billion. The slogan of the time was "a couple, one child" and the Chinese were forced by law to meet the new family planning policy.
Since the implementation of this policy, 500 million births have been prevented and has decreased the excessive increase of the total population. It must be said that it is without the family planning, China would have probably never developed.
In fact, China is the second largest energy consuming country. Yet, this consumption represents a third of that of Europe and a fifth of that of the United States. Imagine the current Chinese population with an American standard of living, there would be 110% of the annual energy supply to get to meet the energy demands of China alone. The Americans, represent only 4% of the world population consume 24% of global energy.
This policy was generally accepted by the population and those who wished to escape had to suffer the consequences. However, the one-child policy did not bring benefits.

A preference for boys

It is difficult to change entrenched ideas in their minds. The one-child policy has not succeeded in changing the ancient ideology that it is better to have a boy than a girl. Following the Confucian tradition suggests that a boy is more useful in society and carry the family name.
Even if, at the time of Mao, we try to enhance the status of women in society and give them a better status, feelings will remain the same in most of China. Populations in large cities were able to develop with the times and accept boys and girls equally. However, in rural areas, where social security is bad, girls are not valued as much as boys. For parents, who think about their future, a girl does not bring them luck, because once married, she will have to go into the family of her husband. The parents then find themselves alone with no one to care for them.
The law prohibits couples from having an abortion because of the sex of the child. However, it is not prohibited to find out the sex of the child before birth. Parents can then find means of abortion outside of their city. This has led to 300 million abortions recorded since the introduction of family planning but many others have been done illegally.
The preference for boys fell at the national average. In 2012, surveys of 117-120 males per 100 females while the global ratio is 103-107 for 100. By 2020 the men of marriageable age will be 24 million more than women creating a huge imbalance.
However, the preference for boys does not necessarily mean there is more in China because of the one-child policy. It is rather the philosophy and ideas conveyed in East Asian countries that have created these problems. Indeed, if figures for South Korea were analyzed where the one-child policy is not applied and the pension system is better developed, the imbalance is almost the same per 100 women, there are 116 men.

An aging population

Before the launch of the one-child policy by Deng Xiaoping, Mao had encouraged people to have children because he needed workers to build the country. All the people who created a baby boom at the time now are at the age of retirement entering the era of the Chinese baby-boom.
While it took 115 years for the proportion of the elderly in France two and 60 years in the United States, it took only 18 years for China to do the same. Between 1981 and 1999, China has become an aging society, that is to say over 10% of China's population in 1999 to be over 60 years.
This explains the rapid economic development of China for 30 years. The country enjoyed a strong workforce, inexpensive and young. However, now China is lack of young workers. Statistics show that over the next decade, young people between 18 and 22 years will fall by 400 million and those between 20 and 40 years between 100 and 300 million. China has a lot of pressure to establish a pension system capable of providing a good end of life for its people, because young workers will not be able to take care of all the elderly.

Changes in the future

The government began to issue the idea of canceling the policy of family planning or making it flexible in the interest of the country.
Politics today tends to soften and they’ve started talking to cancel family planning. For now, a couple that has a daughter is allowed to have a second child, couples with at least one person who was an only child are also allowed, and people from ethnic minorities (10% of the Chinese population) can have up to 3 or 4 children without legal action being taken.
Developed countries, which are not subject to this policy, still have a birth rates lower than that of China. According to estimates, cancellation of this policy would not result in an increase in births in China. The current population, most industrialized and modern seeks to provide more comfort and a future one child rather than have several children and not take care of them properly.

 

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